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  The Neteru (Netjeru) or Gods of Ancient Egypt:

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The Egyptian Neteru: 
© M7 2008


1. Amon-Ra:  Neter of air/ wind, the hidden Sun, prosperity & economy, fertility, materialism, conquest, and power.  Sacred animals: Ram, Ram-headed Cryosphinx, Goose.  Main temples are in Luxor (Thebes) & Karnak in Upper Egypt.  Amon-Ra is the Creator Neter (+Ra), King of Eternity, Guardian of the Dead, and King of the Gods (Neteru).  Alexander the Great during the conquest of the Persian Empire sought his advice at his temple in Siwa Oasis.  Husband of Mut, the mother goddess.  Father of Khonsu, the Moon Neter (deity).  Amon-Ra’s priesthood was the most powerful of all the temples in Egypt.  His power was only challenged during the reign of the heretic-pharaoh, Akhenaton (son of Amonhotep 3 Nebmaatra).  His future incarnation was TutankhAMON NebkhperuRA, whom restored order / Ma’at to Egypt after ending the Al Amarna (Akhenaton’s city, Akhetaton) heresy.  So this is why that the spirits of the Netherworld (in Duat), as seen in 1923, guards that pharaoh’s tomb.    
2. Aton: A solar god originally, he became the Creator God during the reign of Akhenaton 3300 years ago.  A new city was built for this project.  Amonhotep 3 Nebmaatra inspired his son by showing him the power of water evaporation.  So Akhenaton’s temples were all open-ceiling to allow the power of his god (the Sun) to ‘drink his offerings.’  Atonism was not accepted at first.  When the priests refused to accept the new doctrine, Akhenaton forced them to accept it by closing all the polytheist temples in Egypt, forbidding their worship, and destroying statuary.  (This can be realized as to what the Taliban Islamic group did to Afghanistan).  Atonism was supposed to be finalized by Akhenaton’s step-son, King Tutankhaton, whose name read, “Image of the Living God” – as an incarnation of Aton-Ra. After Tut learned of the violations of Egyptian tombs (his brother Smenkhkara’s tomb was robbed, and its contents saved for Tut’s burial, in same tomb) and temples, he ‘saved Egypt’ by restoring Order via restoring theology, building and resurfacing temples, writing new laws, building new statuary and conquering foreign powers (with Heka and Netra magic, too).  
3. Atum:  Solar deity of the evening Sun.  Compared to Ptah, the Creator and daybreak Sun.  City: Heliopolis.  Seen as a ram-headed man.  
4. Bastt: Cat-headed woman/ goddess.  The docile or drunken version of Sakhmet.  Guardian of Cats, goddess of music and the home, from Bubastis in the Delta, Lower Egypt.  
5. Hathor: (Het-horu): Mistress of Horus, a mother goddess; goddess of love and sexual beauty.  From Dendera; sacred animal: Cow; plays the Sistrum musical instrument, used to scare away evil spirits and influences.  
6. Hor-akhty: Horus of the Horizon, a sky god/Neter.  City: Heliopolis & Giza.  Sacred Animal: Falcon or Eagle/Hawk.  
7. Horus: Comes in many forms for each stage of his life.  He is a sky god, his eyes being the Sun & Moon.  Avenger of Osiris, Restorer of Order, Egyptian concept of Messiah or Christ.  Cities: Hierakonpolis, Behdet, Edfu.  
8. Isis: mother goddess, protector of the dead and of women, wife of Osiris.  Mother of Horus the Child.  Symbol: a Throne.  City: Philae, Behbeit al-Hagar.  
9. Khepri: (Kheper) the Solar god of morning, the rising Sun.  Symbol: the Scarab beetle, symbolic of rebirth.  City: Helipolis. Scarabs push a ball of dung containing their eggs, symbolic of the solar god who pushes the Aton disk across the sky after rebirth at daybreak.  
10. Khonsu:  Moon god, son of Amon / Amon-Ra & Mut; Karnak temple.
11. Khnum: Creator god of Elephantine & Esna, Upper Egypt.  Patron of potters, as the god who created mankind on a potter’s wheel from clay.  Ram-headed deity.
12. Min: god of fertility shown while in erotic form.  Sacred god of Coptos, Akhmim; and had a temple near Luxor (AmonRa).  Lettuce was seen as an aphrodisiac due to the myth of Horus & Set battles.  
13. Mut: Wife of Amon, vulture-headed mother goddess at Karnak Temple.  Protector of the new born.  
14. Neith: Warrior or Archery goddess from Sais city (Lower Egypt).  Compared to Minerva (Rome) or Athena (Greece).  Wears a red crown.  Used in the sarcophagus of Tutankhamon as a protector.  
15. Nut: Goddess of the Night sky; symbol was the Divine Cow (constellation).  Wife of Nu the Primordial Ocean.  Invoked for rebirth of the Sun god or Pharaoh in his next life.  Is found painted in coffins or mummy cases.  
16. Nun: The Primordial Ocean (Time).  Origin of all the Neteru except Ptah, who precedes him (as he is self-created); Nu was created by Thoth.  
17. Osiris: a legendary King (Narmer or Scorpion) who became deified after being resurrected and ruler of Heaven, after being slain by his elder brother Set.  Osiris is the symbol of resurrection, an Ankh was his symbol of Eternal Life (a form of cross, not crucifix).  He carries the shepherd crook & flail scepters which mean government and discipline/cultivation.  Abydos and Busiris are his patron cities.  
18. Ptah: the Creator god of Mennofer/Memphis.  Sacred animal: Apis bull.  He is self-created, the First God, and Creator of the Universe; who creates via dreaming and is patron of craftsmen and artists.  His statues resemble an Academy Award idol.  His scepter is the Uas or power/strength symbol with Djed and Ankh symbols.  He is also Lord of Ma’at (order, truth, justice), and Lord of the Shadows; god of daybreak who “opens the sky” and the “mouths of the dead spirit.”  Husband of Sakhmet, father of Nefertum (god of lotus flowers and rebirth).  
19. Ra: the Sun at noon time, its most powerful time.  Merged as the Creator god at Heliopolis.  Father of Ma’at and grandfather / reincarnated form to Horus.  Solar temples include the Pyramids (also as tombs of his incarnations in Pharaohs), ben-ben solar idols, obelisks, and Luxor temple of Amon-Ra.  Principal and most famous of all the gods / Neteru.  Once had his power borrowed by Isis to cure him of a snake bite.  
20. Sakhmet: solar goddess whose name means “feminine power.” Goddess of plagues and health, solar flame and dryness.  Temples built to her in New Kingdom by Amonhotep 3 Nebmaatra to cure him of an epidemic. Lioness with solar crown.  Wife of Ptah, mother of Nefertum.  
21. Shu: god of wind and dryness, or drought.  Worshipped to prevent drought. Man with feather crown.
22. Tefnut:  goddess of moisture, cat headed woman, invoked to cause rain.  
23. Seth: god of chaos, evil, destruction, and storms; enemy of Horus & Osiris.
24. Sobek: Crocodile god of water in the Nile, fertility, protection against Crocodile attacks.  Worshipped in the Fayum and at Kom Ombo.  
25. Thoth (Djehuty): God of Science, knowledge, writing, written magic, Moon god, patron of scribes and Kheri-Heb priests, of Hermopolis Magna; records the Last Judgment of the Soul results during the weighing of the heart ritual.  Divine father of Imhotep (legend).    Creator of mathematics and subsequently Time (Nu) after created by Ptah.  
26. Tauret:  Mother goddess, protector of women in childbirth; hippopotamus.  
27. Uraeus: royal cobra on brow of Ra’s solar crown.  God of solar flame that shoots fire from Ra’s crown against his enemies.  
28. Wadjet: the Eye of Horus, also a protective female goddess of same name.  

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© Copyright 2008 M7

Khenum: flat-horned ram-headed god of creation. He created forms of the gods and men on his potter’s wheel. Patron of Aswan and source of the Nile. Patron god of potters and of craftsmen.

Kheper(a): Scarab-headed god of creation, symbol of the morning sun and of rebirth.

Nu: The Ocean, origin of Khepera in the beginning. Husband of Nut, the goddess of the night sky and of moisture.

Nut: The goddess of the sky, of moisture. It is Nut whom swallows the Sun Ra at night and vomits him up at day. Depicted as a woman with stars in her body, shown hanging above Geb and Shu.

Toth (Thoth) / Tehuti: Scribe to the gods, represents the heart and mind of the Creator of the world. By expressing in words the will of the Creator, he made to come into being everything that exists. Inventor of writing, mathematics, and written magic. Depicted with ibis head. He ordered the times and seasons, and is called "the father of time", husband to Ma’at.

Ma’at / Mat: Goddess of truth, justice, law, order, etc. Depicted with ostrich plume, usually green or yellow, as a crown.

Tmu / Atum: God of evening sun, an ancient solar god, and identified with P’th as Creator.

P’th: Creator god of Memphis / Mennofer, a deified man. He is a master craftsman, created by "divine utterance" or by spitting (hence the name) out the names of the other gods and goddesses. Often depicted as a mummy in a shrine, with short beard and scepters of dominion, life, and stability. P'th means "open" or "opener of ways" in Kmtic.

P’th – Sokar: combination of P’th and Sokar; a form of the Sun god of night, and a god of death.

P’th – Sokar – Asar : combination of P’th, Sokar, and Osiris; sacred to Memphis.

P’th – Tatenen: The Creator of the matter of which the world was formed.

P’th – Amon – Ra: The combination of P’th, Amon, & Ra; (Eye of the Pharaoh ©1990-1995) the Creator and King of the Gods.

Imhotep: A deified man from Memphis, architect of the Zoser Pyramid Complex in the 3rd Dynasty at Saqqara. Worshipped as a god of medicine in Late Period. Noted for his wisdom; also a Vizier and other titles of Pharaoh Zoser (Djeser).

Hor, Horus, Heru: The Sky-God and Sun God of Heliopolis. Depicted as a golden falcon, son of Ra or Ra reborn; later son of Osiris in Dynastic Egypt.

Horur: Horus the Elder. His right eye is the Sun, the left eye is the Moon.

Represents the face of the sky, and is one of the oldest gods in Egypt.

Horpkhart (Harpocrates): Horus the Child. Son of Isis and Osiris. Depicted as a boy with finger in mouth.

Horackhty (Heraakhuti): The Sun God of the two horizons. Also as Ra-Horackhty, or Ra-Horus of the horizon.

Horemaakhut (Harmakhis): The Great Sphinx of Giza, form of Sun God.

Horkhentikhati: Horus in the womb, the unborn Sun God or Horus.

Horsaast: Horus as son of Isis, identified with Horus the Elder.

Hathor: Mother of Horus in ancient times, also wife of Horus in Osirian cult. Goddess of love, beauty, fertility and coition. Depicted as cow headed or as a sacred cow, or woman with cow ears. ( a real "cow")..

Shu: Emanation of Atum or Khepera. Represents atmosphere and air. God of light, heat, air and dryness. Depicted with feather on head (similar to Ma’at).

Tefnut: Sister/wife of Shu, represents rain, dew, fog, the damp heat that produces generation, and moisture generally. Depicted as cat headed, similar to Sakhemet.

Geb: Son of Shu and Tefnut. The Earth God, and responsible for earthquakes, stones, and volcanoes.

Osiris / Asar / Asares: The judge and god of the dead, sacred to Abydos and Busiris. Killed by his jealous brother Set and dismembered. Restored to life by Isis and Horus, twice. Ruler of the Neter-Xert (Netherworld), chiefly at Amenti, where he is called "Khenti-Amenti". Depicted as a mummy or man with green skin, symbolic of plants, chlorophyll, or rebirth.

Set(h), Setesh, or Suketekh: Brother and murderer of Osiris, adversary of Horus and all solar gods, also helps Ra defeat the Dragon Apep. He is the personification of evil, calamities, and is god of destruction, of the desert, of storms and lightning. Depicted with head of extinct African beast, probably an aardvark, zebra, okapi, or unknown creature which was feared. Sacred animals are hippopotami, crocodiles, serpents, and other feared animals.

Nephthys: Sister / wife of Set(h), mother of Anubis. She accompanies her sister Isis with Osiris in the mourning and mummification process. Depicted with dark hair and dress.

Anpu/ Anubis: Divine physician and embalmer of Osiris, guardian of mummies and the night. Depicted with jackal head and royal dress.

Nekhebit: Vulture headed goddess of Upper Egypt, a mother goddess. Great protectress of pregnant women, identified with Tauret; sacred animal is the vulture.

Uatchit: A mother goddess of Lower Egypt, especially in Buto in the Delta; cobra headed.

Neith: Mother goddess of Sais in Delta; self-begotten, self-produced, and a virgin mother of the Sun God (identified later with Mary in Christianity). Goddess of archery and war in later times.

Bastet: Mother goddess of Bubastis in Eastern Delta, cat headed. Goddess of music, of the home, joy and fertility; sacred animal is the cat or lynx. Symbol is the sistrum (same as Hathor).

Tauret: Mother goddess, sacred to protection of the mother and of fertility. Hippopotamus headed.

Heqit: Mother goddess, of rebirth and fertility; frog headed. Sacred to Nubia and Sudan; sacred animal is the tree frog and ordinary frog.

Amon / Amen / Ammon: A god of wealth, patron of Thebes (Luxor), of generation and of the wind or "breath of life". Alexander the Great is called a "son of Amon" after visiting its oracle; identified with Zeus as Amon-Ra.

Ra/ Re: The Sun god and the Creator of the world and of life. Patron of Heliopolis, and of the noon sun. Depicted as falcon-headed with solar crown (Aten). Travels the sky in his boat, as pushed by Khepera. "Ra" means "sun" in kmtic.

Hapi: Nile god, depicted as a blue man with breasts that spew water.

Merit: Goddess of Inundation of the river Nile (Ta-mera as Egypt). Name means "beloved woman".

An-her: An ancient god of This, traits usurped by Osiris; sacred of "moving water".

Menu, Min, Men: Fertility god of Upper Egypt, depicted with erect phallus.

Afura: The body of the sun god of night.

Amset, Imsety: One of the four sons of Horus, whom protect the organs after mummification. Man headed. (liver). Corresponds to goddesses of the organs: (Isis).

Hapy: Son of Horus, ape headed. (lung). (Nephthys).

Qebhsenuf: Son of Horus, hawk headed. (intestines). (Selqet).

Duamutef: Son of Horus, jackal headed. (stomach). (Neith).

Amiut: A dog headed god of the dead, similar to Anubis. His symbol is the headless bull skin attached to a rod (and dripping blood), symbolic for providing a body to the dead, and as an offering.

Ani: A form of the moon god. Husband to Anit.

Anqit & Satit & Khemu: Formed the great triad of Elephantine and First Cataract of the Nile (Sudani ?).

Asten: A companion to Thoth.

Baba: The first born son of Osiris.

Hap: The Apis bull, sacred to P’th. Identified by a star mark on the forehead; Apis bulls were never sacrificed, but lived out their lives in luxury.

Merur: The Mnevis bull, sacred to Ra.

Bekha: The Bakhis bull.

Hu: God of taste, depicted as a man with tongue extended.

Saa: God of touch; both Hu & Saa appear in the Judgment Hall of Osiris.

Iusaasit: An ancient goddess of Heliopolis.

Khonsu: The moon god, son of Amon-Ra and Mut; also called Khonsuneferhotep.

Menhit: A lion goddess.

Montu: A war god of Hermonthis and Thebes.

Mehurit: A sky goddess in the form of a cow.

Mersegerit: A Theban goddess of the Necropolis / Valley of the Kings / Queens; serpent headed.

Meskhenit: A goddess of the birth chamber.

Mut: Mother goddess of Thebes, wife of AmonRa.

Nebertcher: A title of Osiris and other gods, "Lord of the uttermost limit."

Nefertum: Son of P’th and Sakhemet of Memphis.

Nehebka: A benevolent serpent goddess.

Pakhit: A local cat goddess.

Mafdet : A cat goddess.

Rennit: Goddess of birth and the harvest.

Sept: The goddess of the Dog Star.

Sekhemet: "Lady of Power" and "the Eye of Ra", wife of P’th. Goddess of the firey power of the solar wind, solar flame, heat, desert sun, and of sickness. Depicted as lioness headed with papyrus scepter.

Sokar: The god of Death and of the Duat of Memphis. A black falcon headed deity.

Serqit, Selket: The scorpion goddess. Goddess of magic and cures stings of scorpions.

Seshet: Goddess of writing and of literature; an associate of Toth.

Tatenen: A cosmic god, associated with P’th and Atum.

Upuatu: The wolf god, an associate of Anubis.

Unnefer: The hare / rabbit god, identified with Osiris.

Apep/ Apophis/ Typhon: A crocodile or serpent archenemy of the solar gods. The solar eclipse occurs when Apep is swallowing Ra. Represents darkness and evil, an "Anti-God" compared to Seth. Symbol is the dragon.

Asar-Hapi: Sarapis – Apis Bull, a god of death. (Hades).

Ba: A ram headed god.

Mahes: A lion headed god.

Maftt (Mafdet): A lynx headed god (cat).

Khatru: The Ichneumon god.

Antat: Goddess of conception and daughter of Set.

Anthreta: Goddess mentioned with Sutekh (Set).

Astharth, Ashtoreth, or Astoroth: "Mistress of horses and lady of the chariot." A foreign goddess.

Qetesh: Mistress of the gods, the "Eye of Ra."

Kent: A lady of Heaven.

Aasit: A goddess of battle.

Bar, Baal: A god of battle.

Reshpu: A god of war and lightning.

Aten, Aton(e): A god of the Sun, or crown of Ra. From Akhenaton it became the Sole Creator, the One God of the Hebrews (later) in Amarna.  Depicted as solar disk with outstretched rays / arms with hands holding the symbol for life. A god of love and of creative powers or fertility.

Isis, Ast: Wife of Osiris and mother of Horus the Child. A mother goddess and goddess of magic, music, and clothing. Often identified with other goddesses like Selqet and Hathor. Depicted as woman with throne crown or as a woman nursing an infant Horus. Later made State Goddess by Cleopatra VII.

Amsi, Amsu: Representative of generation or reproductive power of Nature. Depicted as a man on a water base with plumed crown and flail in right hand which is raised above his shoulder.

Heru shesu/ shemsu: "Followers of Horus", pertain to the rituals of sensory activation during mummification.

Shai: Goddess of destiny.

Renenet: Goddess of fortune or luck, often with Shai.

Meskhenet: Goddess of clairvoyance.

Heka: God of magic.

Bes: Egyptian dwarf god, patron of children, nightmares, the home, protection, and childbirth.